Aim of this curriculum is to equip students with the relevant professional knowledge, skills and techniques to enable them to apply their acquired expertise for efficient health service delivery. At the end of training the student should be able exhibit the following general and specific competencies:
A. General learning objectives
1. Act upon his / her job description ethically keeping in mind the requirements of community and people at large.
2. Demonstrate empathy and humane approach towards communities and exhibit interpersonal behavior in accordance with the societal norms and expectations.
3. Demonstrate sufficient understanding of basic sciences related to the technology and be able to integrate such knowledge in his / her work.
B. Specific learning objectives:
Following competencies will be expected from a student completing a diploma course in Medical Laboratory Technology. The student should be able to:
• Demonstrate complete knowledge of all simple and medium level laboratory procedures.
• Ability to preserve, process and evaluate all types of biological samples in the laboratory from the clinical perspective.
• Demonstrate knowledge of medical terminology for understanding the laboratory reports.
• Maintenance of work records, tissue storage, up-to-date methodology and miscellaneous duties.
• Maintenance of stock solutions, controls and equipment.
• Knowledge of record keeping.
• Understand the importance of quality assurance and its application in different disciplines of pathology.
• Know the hazards of working in a laboratory and safe disposal of laboratory waste.
• Maintenance and use of microscopes.
• Perform phlebotomy procedures and sample handling in all the section of pathology including bed side sampling.
• Perform laboratory tests in the section of hematology both manually as well as by automated means (routine hematology and coagulation profile).\
- Assist hematologist in the bone marrow procedure and application of routine and various special stains for diagnostic
- Perform blood grouping and cross-matching, donor handling and bleeding, components preparation and apheresis along with identification and reporting of any adverse transfusion reaction promptly to the clinician, in a blood bank
- Prepare and inoculate culture media for identification of growth and cultural characteristics of common micro organisms with sensitivity
- Perform immunological assays by simple and automated
- Preserve and perform examination of stool, urine and other biological
- Know the basis of biochemical testing included in routine and special chemistry by semi and fully automated chemistry
- Using techniques appropriate for the tissue, produce sections (slides) for microscopic This includes fixation, trimming tissues, dehydration, microtomy, and staining.
- Perform special stains on tissues and other biological samples when requested by the
- Label slides with appropriate case number or other identification and match slides with lab unit paperwork for delivery to
- Work activities and skills
- Setup, adjust, maintain and clean laboratory
- Receiving, recording and processing of specimens in all the disciplines of
- Submission and maintenance of reports of all tests and of records of all procedures performed and results
- Analyze the results of tests to ensure conformity using special mechanical and electrical
- Consult with a pathologist to determine the final diagnosis when an abnormality is detected.
- Keeping up-to-dated technically and applying latest knowledge to his practical work.
- Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve
- Distribution of Training Time
The two years’ program would be divided in three distinct parts (Papers). There will be a ‘Core Course’ which would be common for all technologies. The examination for this component will be taken at the end of first academic year. The teaching for specific aspect of this technology will be divided in two sections; examination for these will be held at the end of second academic year – however, teaching for specific techniques will start from the first year.
A typical training day for students at training institutions routinely comprises of five hours. Keeping a generous allowance of holidays and weekends, an academic year for students would be 200 days. Therefore, 1000 teaching hours would be available in 12 months. In the new scheme of studies, for the Core Course the proportion of classroom teaching and practical training (applied learning activities) would be 60:40; whereas this proportion for the specific techniques would be 40:60 and the time allocations for dividing teaching time between various topics, units and sub-units will be done accordingly and is depicted below:
Core Course 500 Section I (Paper I) 750 Section II (Paper II) 750 Total 2000
The marks distribution for this diploma would be:
Subject Marks First Year Core Course 100 Viva 100 Second Year Section I 100 Section II 100 Practical / Viva Section I 100 Practical / Viva Section II 100 Total: 600
B. Essential Teaching Requirements
- Training requirements/instructional methodologies (Process)
- Teaching staff will be given in-service training as recommended by PMF from time to
- Teachers will use a combination of interactive programmed instructions (non-IT), class teaching with exercises using audiovisual aids, mini-lectures, group discussions, simulations and case studies as instructional/teaching
- IT will be employed for teaching where
- A combination of English and Urdu languages will be used as medium of instruction.
- Teachers will encourage students to ask questions; they will encourage debate and discussion in class to inspire and hone thinking skills of Students will be given the opportunity to engage in activities that promote divergent thinking skills. Students will be encouraged to work independently, as well as in small groups and as a whole class, to form creative associations of ideas across discipline lines.
- Practical learning component
As prime objective of the training program is to develop practical skills, an extended practical attachment is its essential part. The student will rotate amongst various clinical laboratories including hematology, bacteriology, histopathology and blood bank and his/her attendance will be recorded on a logbook to be signed by supervisors. Teachers will ensure that students are given chance to practice activities under supervision that are relevant to the topic being taught in class in order for them to develop relevant practical skills.
The detail of specifications for the institution imparting education according to the new scheme of studies, including the facilities for practical attachment, is available in ‘New Affiliation Criteria’ for such institutions.
F Organization of Units of Curriculum
The different units presented in the subsequent sections would comprise of the following components, not essentially in the sequence depicted below:
- Learning Focus (contents, hours, weightage for assessment)
- Learning Objectives (aims and learning outcomes)
- Practical Learning Component (where applicable)
G Revisions and Updating of Curriculum
The curricula are ever evolving organic documents. Regular reviews and revisions are, therefore, essentially required to keep them in pace with modern needs; topics that are required now might outlive their utility in a few years. Updating curricula therefore forms the basis for quality teaching as well as professional competence of AHPs. This would be ensured by technology-wise panels of experts notified by the Health Department.